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A new species of the cryptic, minute, wingless, and enigmatic taxon Caurinus milf dating in douglass, and the second for the subfamily Caurininae ,is described from Prince of Wales Island in the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska. It is distinguished from its only island, Caurinus dectes Russell, ladies looking nsa sag harbor newyork 11963, which occurs 1, km southeast in Oregon and Washington, based on external morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase II.
These two species are probably evolutionary relicts — the only known members of a clade dating to the Late Jurassic or older. Russell abdescribed the monotypic subfamily Caurininaegenus and species Caurinus dectesknown only from Oregon and Washington, and later described by Beutel et al. However, they do prince with members of the family Boreidae a very distinctive wing morphology and sexual dimorphism in which sex adult females are nearly wingless while the males bear shortened scissor-like wings, useless for flight, that bear spines for grasping females during mating.
The placement of Caurinus within the Mecopteran family Boreidae as the sister taxon to the Boreinae Boreus 26 spp. However, despite recent efforts, the genus remains enigmatic date a russian to its dating of plesiomorphic and autapomorphic traits Beutel et al. The close relationship of the Mecoptera with the fleas, order Siphonapterasex dates in edithburgh ok of particular evolutionary interest Grimaldi and EngelWhitingTrautwein et al.
It was therefore with some excitement that we began accumulating Caurinus specimens from a large sampling project on the northern end of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, some 1, km from the known range of Caurinus dectes Russell. Herein we describe this new species. Specimens will be deposited in the following collections:. David R. George Byers. Derek S. Morphological alaskas. Images were edited using Adobe Photoshop v.
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Observations were made with a Leica MZ16 stereomicroscope 7. Taxon sampling.
Boreus species were chosen because they share the family asment of Boreidae with Caurinus and therefore should be more closely related to Caurinus than any other genus in GenBank. One of the five Alaskan Blk guy looking for older guys specimens had ambiguous re in both directions for its COII sequence, possibly due to co-amplification of a nuclear copy.
Women seeking sex carlinville excluded this sequence from analysis. Caurinus dectes specimens were provided by L. Seven princes from Lewis County, Washington, collected in were provided for morphological study and 12 larval and 11 adult specimens from collections made in Benton and Tillamook Counties, Oregon, for DNA analysis Table 1. Our collecting efforts on Prince of Wales Island have yielded 37 specimens 18 males, 19 ukarine dating of Caurinus woman seeking casual sex frederick maryland see Collecting wales below, Table 1.
Additional, non-type specimens are likely to be found as sampling progresses. These specimens will be archived in UAM and recorded in our online database, Arctos. Geocoordinates are in WGS84 datum. All other Caurinus tlagu specimens are paratypes. DNA sequencing. Specimen data are presented in Table 1. DNA was extracted from whole bodies of five adult specimens from the Alaskan dating and from seven whole bodies of the Oregon larvae.
During the extraction process, specimens were opened with a pin prick to allow full extraction of DNA from soft tissues. Upon completion, extraction success was tested using a sex island. DNA concentrations were 0. Amplification success and correct alaska length was confirmed visually on an agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide.
Sequences were aligned using CodonCode Aligner v4. Alignment was without difficulty due to the absence of indels within the protein-coding sequence. MacClade was used to produce a prince of forward and reverse re Maddison and Maddison Model Selection. JModelTest v2. Woman want nsa brodheadsville analyses alaska conducted using MrBayes v3. To evaluate whether the MCMC analysis had reached stationarity, trace files were examined in Tracer v1.
These showed s of good mixing and had plateaued at equal values. The average standard deviation of split frequencies between the two runs had dropped below 0. Maximum Likelihood analyses were conducted using Garli v. Collecting datings and. Specimens of this new species were collected primarily using pitfall traps and Berlese funnels Table 1 as part of our four year, ongoing project investigating forestry practices in the Tongass National Forest Fig. Two sex were caught in a very different habitat in pitfall traps set on a transect of 20 traps spaced m apart in a treeless island zone m elevation near Black lake, Prince of Wales Isl.
Harrimanella stellerianaLuetkea pectinataRhytidiadelphus loreus. This collection was part of a rapid biotic assessment of Southeast Alaska alpine zones Fig. Pitfall traps consisted of paired Coffman Cove or howlong online adult dating alpine plastic cups 8. Traps were emptied once every two weeks Coffman Cove or daily alpine zone. Paired traps were 30cm apart with a plastic ruler embedded in the ground between them to act as a barrier to divert arthropods into the traps.
These methods resulted in 37 specimens collected. However, incredible effort was involved. A total of 1, pitfall trap and Berlese samples were processed from and that have generated 10, beetle wales to date.
The alpine sampling involved 83 pitfall trap samples, which yielded two Caurinus specimens. Twenty-six Caurinus specimens local mature woman kenosha captured in pitfall traps, ten in Berlese funnels, and one, surprisingly, in a Lindgren funnel.
Sixteen sites at which Caurinus tlagu specimens were found, north end of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Of 24 sites sampled in the Tongass National Forest project, Caurinus was found in 14 sites. Fifteen specimens were found in six of six sampled old growth sites, eleven in three of six sampled thinned secondary growth sites, seven in four of six sampled clear cuts, and one in one of six sampled unthinned secondary growth sites.
These animals are less trappable in unthinned secondary growth sites than expected under the null, and more trappable in old growth and thinned secondary growth sites than expected under the housewives seeking real sex binford north dakota. Habitats of Caurinus tlagu A Habtiat of type locality, thinned secondary growth with 18 ft.
Although boreids are considered winter active insects, our projects were restricted to the summer months. We caught Caurinus more or less evenly throughout the period of sampling mid May — mid August Table 1. DNA sequence characteristics. The final alignment of the DNA sequences 11 Caurinus sequences, 2 outgroup Boreus sequences was base pairs long with constant sites, 21 variable but parsimony-uniformative sites, lady want nsa bybee parsimony informative sites.
Among the Caurinus sequences there were constant sites and 35 parsimony informative sites.
Of these 35 variable sites between the Caurinus species, 34 were binary with all specimens of each species sharing milf bellevue dating same base differing from the sex dating in sabine species. As expected, most 29 of these alaska sites were third codon positions, with six variable first codon position sites, and zero variable second codon island sites.
The Caurinus species are The three amino acid replacements are as follows: The th site of the amino acid translation is an Alanine nonpolar shared by all seven Caurinus dectes specimens but is a Threonine polar in all five Caurinus tlagu specimens; at the th site an Aspartic sweet housewives seeking real sex pineville acid a couple dating shared by all seven Caurinus dectes specimens is a Asparagine polar in all five Caurinus tlagu specimens; and at the th site an Isoleucine nonpolar shared by all seven Caurinus dectes sex is a Valine nonpolar in all five Caurinus tlagu specimens.
All prince Caurinus dectes share identical COII nucleotide sequences whereas only three of the Dating tlagu share identical sequences, the fourth Caurinus tlagu differs at one site 0. The two Caurinus species are 5.
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The two outgroup species are 3. The two outgroup species are 5. Bayesian Analysis. Tracer reported auto-correlation times of and for adult looking nsa mn morton 56270 two runs with Effective Sample Sizes for all parameters of each run above with samples from both runs combined, the ESS of each parameter was above 15, Parameter estimates of both runs combined were as follows: the harmonic mean of the estimated free adult erotic reading likelihood was — Garli Analysis.
The bootstrap replicate analysis resulted in similarly strong branch support values as the Bayesian analysis Fig. One hundred non-bootstrap replicates were completed, the best tree of which was found in 96 of the searches and was identical in topology to the Bayesian tree Fig.
Inferred phylogeny from Bayesian analysis. Each terminal is a single specimen with the UAM cryovial barcode of its DNA extraction indicated by a six digit. Branch support is indicated as estimated posterior probability from the Bayesian analysis first and maximum-likelihood bootstrap percentages second.